HEAVY METALS QUANTIFICATION AND CORRELATIVE CARCINOGENIC-RISKS EVALUATION IN SELECTED ENERGY DRINKS SOLD IN BAYELSA STATE USING ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUE
Keywords:Heavy metals, Carcinogenic-Risk, Energy drinks, AAS, THQ, CDI, EDI
Objective: The study aimed to quantify the concentrations and carcinogenic-related health risks assessment of some heavy metals in selected energy drinks frequently utilized in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
Methods: Eleven energy drinks samples were purchased from the general markets in Amassoma and Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, and were labeled D1–D11. The samples were digested using 10 ml of nitric acid at 120-150 ℃, and 2 ml of Perchloric acid was added after attaining room temperature, it was digested further until a clear solution was obtained, then made up to 25 ml with distilled water. The concentration of lead, cadmium, iron, and zinc were determined and quantified using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), and the health-associated risks of these metals were evaluated using the standard Target Health Quotient (THQ).
Results: The EDI (Estimated Daily Intake) of lead (Pd), Cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) was 0.130, 0.001, 0.726, and 0.193 mg/l, respectively, all were within the World Health Organization (WHO)-acceptable range. The Chronic Daily Intake (CDI) of Pd, Cd, Fe, and Zn was obtained as 0.001 to 0.010, 5.7 x 10-5, 0.001 to 0.050, and 0.0001 to 0.010 mg/l respectively.
Conclusion: THQ for all metals analyzed was<1, the WHO acceptable limit. All the heavy metals were within acceptable THQ limits, thus posing no carcinogenic health potential risks on long-term consumption.
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