• DIVYA NATARAJ Center for Incubation, Innovation, Research and Consultancy, Jyothy Institute of Technology, Thathaguni Post, Bengaluru 560082
  • NARENDRA REDDY Center for Incubation, Innovation, Research and Consultancy, Jyothy Institute of Technology, Thathaguni Post, Bengaluru 560082


Alginate is a polysaccharide obtained from seaweeds that are abundantly available and have shown great potential for diverse industrial applications. However, alginate lacks properties such as stability under aqueous conditions and it is difficult to control the rate of degradation of alginate-based materials, crucial for various medical applications. Therefore, researchers have modified alginate using physical or chemical approaches to enhance physical properties, biocompatibility, solubility and also to control the biodegradability of alginate-based materials. Crosslinking using ionic, covalent, photo and enzymatic approaches are one of the preferred methods for modifying the properties of alginates and its derivatives. Crosslinking binds the individual polymer chains with one another to form a network that enhances mechanical properties and stability. Among the different crosslinking approaches, ionic crosslinking provides biomaterials with limited stability whereas biomaterials with high mechanical stability can be prepared by covalent crosslinking. Although a wide variety of crosslinking chemicals and approaches are available to make alginate suitable for various applications, the methods used, properties and applications of the cross-linked materials vary significantly between studies. There are very few reports that have compared and evaluated the benefits of using different crosslinking approaches and the properties and applications of cross-linked alginate. In this review, the various methods of crosslinking alginates, their advantages, and limitations have been reviewed with particular emphasis on medical applications of alginate. The data for writing the review was obtained using search engines like Google scholar, Sci-hub and Sci finder and the keywords used include alginate, crosslinking, ionic, covalent, photo, enzymatic, biomedical applications.

Keywords: Alginate, Crosslinking, Ionic, Covalent, Photo, Enzymatic, Biomedical applications


Download data is not yet available.


1. Haug I, Draget K. Handbook of hydrocolloids. GO Phillips and PA Williams: Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition; 2009.
2. Huebsch N, Mooney DJ. Inspiration and application in the evolution of biomaterials. Nature 2009;462:426-32.
3. Ratner BD, Bryant SJ. Biomaterials: where we have been and where we are going. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2004;6:41-75.
4. Lalita Devi, Punam gaba. Hydrogel: an updated primer. J Crit Rev 2019;6:1-10.
5. Viswanathan S, Nallamuthu T. Extraction of sodium alginate from selected seaweeds and their physicochemical and biochemical properties. Extraction 2014;3:10998-1003.
6. Mushollaeni W. The physicochemical characteristics of sodium alginate from Indonesian brown seaweeds. Afr J Food Sci 2011;5:349-52.
7. Omar N, Ahmad F. Composition of alginates from brown seaweeds, sargassum and padina spp. Pertanika 1988;11:79-85.
8. Jayasinghe P, Pahalawattaarachchi V, Ranaweera K. Effect of extraction methods on the yield and physiochemical properties of polysaccharides extracted from seaweed available in Sri Lanka. Poult Fish Wildl Sci 2016;4:1-6.
9. Kloareg B, Quatrano R. Structure of the cell walls of marine algae and ecophysiological functions of the matrix polysaccharides. Oceanography Marine Biol: Annual Rev 1988;26:259-315.
10. Smidsrod O, KL Draget. Chemistry and physical properties of alginates. Carbohydrate Eur J 1996;14:6-13.
11. Smidsrod O, Haug A, Larsen BR. The influence of pH on the rate of hydrolysis of acidic polysaccharides. Acta Chem Scand 1966;20:1026-34.
12. Donati I, Gamini A, Skjak Bræk G, Vetere A, Campa C, Coslovi A, Paoletti S. Determination of the diadic composition of alginate by means of circular dichroism: a fast and accurate improved method. Carbohydr Res 2003;338:1139-42.
13. Draget KI, Smidsrød O, Skjak Bræk G. Alginates from algae. Biopolymers Online: Biol Chem Biotechnol Applications 2005;6:1-30.
14. Draget KI, Skjak Bræk G, Stokke BT. Similarities and differences between alginic acid gels and ionically cross-linked alginate gels. Food Hydrocoll 2006;20:170-5.
15. BH Nanjunda Reddy, Pradipta Ranjan Rauta, Venkatalakshmi, Swami Srinivasa. Development, formulation and evaluation of sodium alginate-g-poly (Acrylamide-Co-Acrylic Acid/Cloiste-30B) AGNPs Hydrogel composites and their applications in paclitaxel drug delivery and anticancer activity. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:141-50.
16. Jayakumar R, Reis R, Mano J. Chemistry and applications of phosphorylated chitin and chitosan. e-Polymers 2006;6:447-62.
17. Kim IY, Seo SJ, Moon HS. Chitosan and its derivatives for tissue engineering applications. Biotechnol Adv 2008;26:1-21.
18. Pawar SN. Chemical modification of alginates in organic media; 2013.
19. Tsujino I, Saito T. A new unsaturated uronide isolated from alginase hydrolysate. Nature 1961;192:970-1.
20. Silva JM, Caridade SG, Reis RL. Polysaccharide-based freestanding multilayered membranes are exhibiting reversible switchable properties. Soft Matter 2016;12:1200-9.
21. Haug A, Smidsrod O. Selectivity of some anionic polymers for divalent metal ions. Acta Chem Scand 1970;24:843-54.
22. Morris ER, Rees DA, Thom D. Chiroptical and stoichiometric evidence of a specific, primary dimerization process in alginate gelation. Carbohydr Res 1978;66:145-54.
23. Cathell MD, Schauer CL. Structurally colored thin films of Ca2+cross-linked alginate. Biomacromolecules 2007;8:33-41.
24. Schauer CL, Chen MS, Price RR, Schoen PE, Ligler FS. Colored thin films for specific metal ion detection. Environ Sci Technol 2004;38:4409-13.
25. Figueira M, Volesky B, Ciminelli V. Assessment of interference in biosorption of heavy metal. Biotechnol Bioeng 1997;54:344-50.
26. Dong Z, Wang Q, Du Y. Alginate/gelatin blend films and their properties for drug controlled release. J Memb Sci 2006;280:37-44.
27. Aslani P, Kennedy RA. Studies on diffusion in alginate gels. I. Effect of cross-linking with calcium or zinc ions on the diffusion of acetaminophen. J Controlled Release 1996;42:75-82.
28. Shu X, Zhu K. The release behavior of brilliant blue from calcium–alginate gel beads coated by chitosan: the preparation method effect. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2002;53:193-201.
29. Changez M, Koul V, Krishna B, Dinda AK, Choudhary V. Studies on biodegradation and release of gentamicin sulphate from interpenetrating network hydrogels based on poly (acrylic acid) and gelatin: in vitro and in vivo. Biomaterials 2004;25:139-46.
30. Al-Musa S, Fara DA, Badwan A. Evaluation of parameters involved in preparation and release of drug-loaded in cross-linked matrices of alginate. J Controlled Release 1999;57:223-32.
31. Esser E, Tessmar JK. Preparation of well‐defined calcium cross‐linked alginate films for the prevention of surgical adhesions. J Biomed Mater Res B 2013;101:826-39.
32. Jayakumar R, Rajkumar M, Freitas H, Selvamurugan N, Nair SV, Furuike T, et al. Preparation, characterization, bioactive and metal uptake studies of alginate/phosphorylated chitin blend films. Int J Biol Macromol 2009;44:107-11.
33. Tsutsumi A, Sasajima S, Hldeshlma T, Nlshl N, Nlshlmura SI, Tokura S. ESR studies of Mn (II) binding to carboxymethyl and phosphorylated chitins in aqueous solutions. Polym J 1986;18:509-11.
34. Tokura S, Nishimura SI, Nishi N. Studies on chitin IX. Specific binding of calcium ions by carboxymethyl-chitin. Polym J 1983;15:597-602.
35. Jayakumar R, Prabaharan M, Reis RL, Mano J. Graft copolymerized chitosan—present status and applications. Carbohydr Polym 2005;62:142-58.
36. Machida Sano I, Hirakawa M, Matsumoto H, Kamada M, Ogawa S, Satoh N, et al. Surface characteristics determining the cell compatibility of ionically cross-linked alginate gels. Biomed Mater 2014;9:1-7.
37. Keselowsky BG, Collard DM, García AJ. Surface chemistry modulates fibronectin conformation and directs integrin binding and specificity to control cell adhesion. J Biomed Mater Res A 2003;66:247-59.
38. Xie HG, Zheng JN, Li AX. Effect of surface morphology and charge on the amount and conformation of fibrinogen adsorbed onto alginate/chitosan microcapsules. Langmuir 2009;26:5587-94.
39. Blanco EM, Horton MA, Mesquida P. Simultaneous investigation of the influence of topography and charge on protein adsorption using artificial nanopatterns. Langmuir 2008;24:2284-7.
40. Grinnell F, Feld MK. Adsorption characteristics of plasma fibronectin in relationship to biological activity. J Biomed Mater Res A 1981;15:363-81.
41. Liling G, Di Z, Jiachao X, Xin G, Xiaoting F, Qing Z. Effects of ionic crosslinking on the physical and mechanical properties of alginate mulching films. Carbohydr Polym 2016;136:259-65.
42. Pavlath A, Gossett C, Camirand W. Ionomeric films of alginic acid. J Food Sci 1999;64:61-3.
43. Remunan Lopez C, Bodmeier R. Mechanical, water uptake and permeability properties of cross-linked chitosan glutamate and alginate films. J Controlled Release 1997;44:215-25.
44. Hosokawa J, Nishiyama M, Yoshihara K, Kubo T. Biodegradable film derived from chitosan and homogenized cellulose. Ind Eng Chem Res 1990;29:800-5.
45. Kim JH, Kim JY, Lee YM. Properties and swelling characteristics of cross‐linked poly (vinyl alcohol)/chitosan blend membrane. J Appl Polym Sci 1992;45:1711-7.
46. Thacharodi D, Rao KP. Release of nifedipine through cross-linked chitosan membranes. Int J Pharm 1993;96:33-9.
47. Roger S, Talbot D, Bee A. Preparation and effect of Ca2+on water solubility, particle release and swelling properties of magnetic alginate films. J Magn Magn Mater 2006;2006:221-7.
48. Rhim JW. Physical and mechanical properties of water-resistant sodium alginate films. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2004;37:323-30.
49. Russo R, Malinconico M, Santagata G. Effect of cross-linking with calcium ions on the physical properties of alginate films. Biomacromolecules 2007;8:3193-7.
50. Park GS, Crank J. Diffusion in polymers. 1st Edition. Academic Press; London and New York; 1968.
51. Li Y, Wang Z, Xu X, Jin L. A Ca-alginate particle co-immobilized with Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells and the combined cross-linked enzyme aggregates from trametes versicolor. Bioresour Technol 2015;198:464-9.
52. Shen W, Hsieh YL. Biocompatible sodium alginate fibers by aqueous processing and physical crosslinking. Carbohydr Polym 2014;102:893-900.
53. Roh YH, Shin CS. Preparation and characterization of alginate–carrageenan complex films. J Appl Polym Sci 2006;99:3483-90.
54. Xu J, BartleyJ, Johnson R. Preparation and characterization of alginate–carrageenan hydrogel films cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide (WSC). J Membr Sci Technol 2003;218:131-46.
55. Mohanan A, Vishalakshi B. Swelling and diffusion characteristics of interpenetrating network films composed of sodium alginate and gelatin: transport of azure b. Int J Polym Mater 2009;58:561-80.
56. Satish C, Satish K, Shivakumar H. Hydrogels as controlled drug delivery systems: synthesis, crosslinking, water and drug transport mechanism. Indian J Pharm Sci 2006;68:133-40.
57. Rokhade AP, Agnihotri SA, Patil SA, Mallikarjuna NN, Kulkarni PV, Aminabhavi TM. Semi-interpenetrating polymer network microspheres of gelatin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for controlled release of ketorolac tromethamine. Carbohydr Polym 2006;65:243-52.
58. Zactiti E, Kieckbusch T. Potassium sorbate permeability in biodegradable alginate films: effect of the antimicrobial agent concentration and crosslinking degree. J Food Eng 2006;77:462-7.
59. Koushki MR, Azizi MH, Azizkhani M, Koohy Kamaly P. Effect of different formulations on mechanical and physical properties of calcium alginate edible films. J Food Qual Hazards Control 2015;2:45-50.
60. Olivas GI, Barbosa Canovas GV. Alginate–calcium films: water vapor permeability and mechanical properties as affected by plasticizer and relative humidity. Lebenson Wiss Technol 2008;41:359-66.
61. Benavides S, Villalobos Carvajal R, Reyes J. Physical, mechanical and antibacterial properties of alginate film: effect of the crosslinking degree and oregano essential oil concentration. J Food Eng 2012;110:232-9.
62. Bal DK, Patra S, Ganguly S. Drying characteristics and evolution of the pore space in alginate scaffold with embedded sub-millimeter voids. J Solgel Sci Technol 2013;68:254-60.
63. Bouhadir KH, Lee KY, Alsberg E, Damm KL, Anderson KW, Mooney DJ. Degradation of partially oxidized alginate and its potential application for tissue engineering. Biotechnol Prog 2001;17:945-50.
64. Bouhadir KH, Hausman DS, Mooney DJ. Synthesis of cross-linked poly (aldehyde guluronate) hydrogels. Polymer 1999;40:3575-84.
65. Kumar A, Jaiswal M. Design and in vitro investigation of nanocomposite hydrogel-based in situ spray dressing for chronic wounds and synthesis of silver nanoparticles using green chemistry. J Appl Polym Sci 2016;133:1-14.
66. Gilchrist T, Martin A. Wound treatment with Sorbsan-an alginate fibre dressing. Biomaterials 1983;4:317-20.
67. Machida Sano I, Ogawa S, Ueda H, Kimura Y, Satoh N, Namiki H. Effects of the composition of iron-cross-linked alginate hydrogels for the cultivation of human dermal fibroblasts. Int J Biomater 2012;2012:1-8.
68. De Vos P, De Haan B, Wolters GH. Factors influencing the adequacy of microencapsulation of rat pancreatic islets1. Transplantation 1996;62:888-93.
69. Wang L, Shelton RM, Cooper PR, Lawson M, Triffitt JT, Barralet JE. Evaluation of sodium alginate for bone marrow cell tissue engineering. Biomaterials 2003;24:3475-81.
70. Manz B, Hillgartner M, Zimmermann H, Zimmermann D, Volke F, Zimmermann U. Cross-linking properties of alginate gels determined by using advanced NMR imaging and Cu2+as contrast agent. Eur Biophys J 2004;33:50-8.
71. Mukhopadhyay D, Reid M, Saville D, Tucker IG. Cross-linking of dried paracetamol alginate granules: Part 1. The effect of the cross-linking process variables. Int J Pharm 2005;299:134-45.
72. Pillay V, Fassihi R. In vitro release modulation from cross-linked pellets for site-specific drug delivery to the gastrointestinal tract: II. Physicochemical characterization of calcium–alginate, calcium–pectinate and calcium–alginate–pectinate pellets. J Controlled Release 1999;59:243-56.
73. Julian TN, Radebaugh GW, Wisniewski SJ. Permeability characteristics of calcium alginate films. J Controlled Release 1988;7:165-9.
74. Abu Rabeah K, Niţa I, Tencaliec A. New approach of constructing biosensing matrices by physical and chemical crosslinking of biotin-alginate with alginate-pyrrole. Electrochimica Acta 2009;54:4359-64.
75. Murata Y, Nakada K, Miyamoto E. Influence of erosion of calcium-induced alginate gel matrix on the release of brilliant blue. J Controlled Release 1993;23:21-6.
76. Chavez MS, Luna JA, Garrote RL. Crosslinking kinetics of thermally presetal ginate gels. J Food Sci 1994;59:1108-10.
77. Cao Y, Shen X, Chen Y. pH-induced self-assembly and capsules of sodium alginate. Biomacromolecules 2005;6:2189-96.
78. Allen C, Maysinger D, Eisenberg A. Nano-engineering block copolymer aggregates for drug delivery. Colloids Surf B 1999;16:3-27.
79. Webber S. Polymer micelles: an example of self-assembling polymers. ACS Publications; 1998.
80. Giridhar RS, Pandit AS. Effect of curing agent on sodium alginate blends using barium chloride as crosslinking agent and study of swelling, thermal, and morphological properties. Int J Polym Mater Polym 2013;62:743-8.
81. Reddy SG, Pandit AS. Biodegradable sodium alginate and lignosulphonic acid blends: characterization and swelling studies. Polímeros 2013;23:13-8.
82. Rabiej S. Determination of the crystallinity of polymer blends by an X-ray diffraction method. Eur Polym J 1993;29:625-33.
83. Bajpai S, Saxena SK, Sharma S. Swelling behavior of barium ions-cross-linked bipolymeric sodium alginate–carboxymethyl guar gum blend beads. React Funct Polym 2006;66:659-66.
84. Konwar A, Chowdhury D. Property relationship of alginate and alginate–carbon dot nanocomposites with bivalent and trivalent cross-linker ions. RSC Adv 2015;5:62864-70.
85. Gombotz WR, Wee SF. Protein release from alginate matrices. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2012;64:194-205.
86. Jiang C, Wang Z, Zhang X, Zhu X, Nie J, Ma G. Cross-linked polyelectrolyte complex fiber membrane based on chitosan–sodium alginate by freeze-drying. RSC Adv 2014;4:41551-60.
87. Zhang H, Hussain I, Brust M, Butler MF, Rannard SP, Cooper AI. Aligned two-and three-dimensional structures by directional freezing of polymers and nanoparticles. Nat Mater 2005;4:787-93.
88. Zhang H, Cooper AI. Aligned porous structures by directional freezing. Adv Mater 2007;19:1529-33.
89. Zhang B, He D, Fan Y, Liu N, Chen Y. Oral delivery of exenatide via microspheres prepared by cross-linking of alginate and hyaluronate. PloS One 2014;9:e86064.
90. Manoj Kumar Das, Abdul Baquee Ahmed, Dipankar Saha. Microsphere a drug delivery system-a review. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2019;11:34-41.
91. Nguyen HN, Wey SP, Juang JH, Sonaje K, Ho YC, Chuang EY, et al. The glucose-lowering potential of exendin-4 orally delivered via a pH-sensitive nanoparticle vehicle and effects on subsequent insulin secretion in vivo. Biomaterials 2011;32:2673-82.
92. Şanlı O, Solak EK. Controlled release of naproxen from sodium alginate and poly (vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend beads cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. J Appl Polym Sci 2009;112:2057-65.
93. Chuan Wu J, Kong Wong Y, Wei Chang K, Yong Tay C, Chow Y, Talukder MM, et al. Immobilization of mucor javanicus lipase by entrapping in alginate-silica hybrid gel beads with simultaneous cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Biocatal Biotransformation 2007;25:459-63.
94. Chuan Wu J, Selvam V, Teo HH, Chow Y, Talukder MM, Choi WJ. Immobilization of candida rugosa lipase by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde followed by entrapment in alginate beads. Biocatal Biotransformation 2006;24:352-7.
95. Badiger H, Shukla S, Kalyani S, Sridhar S. Thin-film composite sodium alginate membranes for dehydration of acetic acid and isobutanol. J Appl Polym Sci 2014;131:1-9.
96. Bekin S, Sarmad S, Gürkan K, Keçeli G, Gürdag G. Characterization and bending behavior of electro responsive sodium alginate/poly (acrylic acid) interpenetrating network films under an electric field stimulus. Sens Actuators B 2014;202:878-92.
97. Ikeda S, Kumagai H, Nakamura K. Dielectric analysis of food polysaccharides in aqueous solution. Carbohydr Res 1997;301:51-9.
98. Mishima K, Mimura A, Takahara Y, Asami K, Hanai T. On-line monitoring of cell concentrations by dielectric measurements. J Ferment Bioeng 1991;72:291-5.
99. Hillberg AL, Holmes CA, Tabrizian M. Effect of genipin cross-linking on the cellular adhesion properties of layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte films. Biomaterials 2009;30:4463-70.
100. Boanini E, Rubini K, Panzavolta S, Bigi A. Chemico-physical characterization of gelatin films modified with oxidized alginate. Acta Biomater 2010;6:383-8.
101. Bello YM, Falabella AF, Eaglstein WH. Tissue-engineered skin. Am J Clin Dermatol 2001;2:305-13.
102. Yanez M, De Maria C, Rincon J, Boland T. Printable biodegradable hydrogel with self-crosslinking agents for wound dressings. NIP and Digital Fabrication Conference, Society for Imaging Science and Technology; 2011. p. 632-5.
103. Desai RM, Koshy ST, Hilderbrand SA, Mooney DJ, Joshi NS. Versatile click alginate hydrogels cross-linked via tetrazine–norbornene chemistry. Biomaterials 2015;50:30-7.
104. Aimetti AA, Machen AJ, Anseth KS. Poly (ethylene glycol) hydrogels formed by thiol-ene photopolymerization for enzyme-responsive protein delivery. Biomaterials 2009;30:6048-54.
105. Shih H, Lin CC. Cross-linking and degradation of step-growth hydrogels formed by thiol–ene photoclick chemistry. Biomacromolecules 2012;13:2003-12.
106. Polyak B, Geresh S, Marks RS. Synthesis and characterization of a biotin-alginate conjugate and its application in a biosensor construction. Biomacromolecules 2004;5:389-96.
107. Jeon O, Powell C, Ahmed SM, Alsberg E. Biodegradable, photocross-linked alginate hydrogels with independently tailorable physical properties and cell adhesivity. Tissue Eng Part A 2010;16:2915-25.
108. Jeon O, Bouhadir KH, Mansour JM, Alsberg E. Photocross-linked alginate hydrogels with tunable biodegradation rates and mechanical properties. Biomaterials 2009;30:2724-34.
109. Malafaya PB, Silva GA, Reis RL. Natural–origin polymers as carriers and scaffolds for biomolecules and cell delivery in tissue engineering applications. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2007;59:207-33.
110. Rouillard AD, Tsui Y, Polacheck WJ, Lee JY, Bonassar LJ, Kirby BJ. Control of the electromechanical properties of alginate hydrogels via ionic and covalent cross-linking and microparticle doping. Biomacromolecules 2010;11:2184-9.
111. Rouillard AD, Berglund CM, Lee JY, Polacheck WJ, Tsui Y, Bonassar LJ, et al. Methods for photocrosslinking alginate hydrogel scaffolds with high cell viability. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2010;17:173-9.
112. Higham AK, Bonino CA, Raghavan SR, Khan SA. Photo-activated ionic gelation of alginate hydrogel: real-time rheological monitoring of the two-step crosslinking mechanism. Soft Matter 2014;10:4990-5002.
113. Javvaji V, Baradwaj AG, Payne GF, Raghavan SR. Light-activated ionic gelation of common biopolymers. Langmuir 2011;27:12591-6.
114. Cui J, Wang M, Zheng Y, Rodriguez Muniz GM, del Campo A. Light-triggered is cross-linking of alginates with caged Ca2+. Biomacromolecules 2013;14:1251-6.
115. Chiou BS, Raghavan SR, Khan SA. Effect of colloidal fillers on the cross-linking of a UV-curable polymer: gel point rheology and the winter−chambon criterion. Macromolecules 2001;34:4526-33.
116. Bruchet M, Melman A. Fabrication of patterned calcium cross-linked alginate hydrogel films and coatings through reductive cation exchange. Carbohydr Polym 2015;131:57-64.
117. Bruchet M, Mendelson NL, Melman A. Photochemical patterning of ionically cross-linked hydrogels. Processes 2013;1:153-66.
118. Narayanan RP, Melman G, Letourneau NJ, Mendelson NL, Melman A. Photodegradable iron (III) cross-linked alginate gels. Biomacromolecules 2012;13:2465-71.
119. Srivastava R, Brown JQ, Zhu H, McShane MJ. Stabilization of glucose oxidase in alginate microspheres with photoreactive diazo resin nanofilm coatings. Biotechnol Bioeng 2005;91:124-31.
120. Decher G, Hong J, Schmitt J. Buildup of ultrathin multilayer films by a self-assembly process: III. Consecutively alternating adsorption of anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes on charged surfaces. Thin Solid Films 1992;210:831-5.
121. Hu N, Frueh J, Zheng C, Zhang B, He Q. Photo-cross-linked natural polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules for drug delivery. Colloids Surf A 2015;482:315-23.
122. Sukhorukov GB, Donath E, Davis S, Lichtenfeld H, Caruso F, Popov VI, et al. Stepwise polyelectrolyte assembly on particle surfaces: a novel approach to colloid design. Polym Adv Technol 1998;9:759-67.
123. Decher G. Fuzzy nanoassemblies: toward layered polymeric multi composite. Science 1997;277:1232-7.
124. DeWitt DM. Studying and controlling chromophore orientation in polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer thin films. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 2002.
125. Richardson JJ, Ejima H, Lorcher SL, Liang K, Senn P, Cui J, et al. Preparation of nano‐and microcapsules by electrophoretic polymer assembly. Angew Chem Int Ed 2013;52:6455-8.
126. Coates EE, Riggin CN, Fisher JP. Photocross-linked alginate with hyaluronic acid hydrogels as vehicles for mesenchymal stem cell encapsulation and chondrogenesis. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2013;101:1962-70.
127. Elsayed NH, Monier M, Alatawi RA. Synthesis and characterization of photo-cross-linkable 4-styryl-pyridine modified alginate. Carbohydr Polym 2016;145:121-31.
128. Zhu C, Kustra SR, Bettinger CJ. Photocrosslinkable biodegradable elastomers based on cinnamate-functionalized polyesters. Acta Biomater 2013;9:7362-70.
129. Ying X, Qi L, Li X, Zhang W, Cheng G. Stimuli‐responsive recognition of BSA‐imprinted polyvinyl acetate grafted calcium alginate core‐shell hydrogel microspheres. J Appl Polym Sci 2013;127:3898-909.
130. Zhang S, Shang W, Yang X, Zhang S, Zhang X, Chen J. Immobilization of lipase using alginate hydrogel beads and enzymatic evaluation in hydrolysis of p-nitrophenol butyrate. Bull Korean Chem Soc 2013;34:2741-6.
131. Zhang S, Shang W, Yang X, Zhang X, Huang Y, Zhang S, et al. Immobilization of lipase with alginate hydrogel beads and the lipase‐catalyzed kinetic resolution of α‐phenyl ethanol. J Appl Polym Sci 2014;131:1-6.
132. Jeon O, Samorezov JE, Alsberg E. Single and dual cross-linked oxidized methacrylated alginate/PEG hydrogels for bioadhesive applications. Acta Biomater 2014;10:47-55.
133. Cha C, Kim SR, Jin YS, Kong H. Tuning structural durability of yeast‐encapsulating alginate gel beads with interpenetrating networks for sustained bioethanol production. Biotechnol Bioeng 2012;109:63-73.
134. Kohli P, Blanchard G. Design and demonstration of hybrid multilayer structures: layer-by-layer mixed covalent and ionic interlayer linking chemistry. Langmuir 2000;16:8518-24.
135. Kong HJ, Kaigler D, Kim K, Mooney DJ. Controlling rigidity and degradation of alginate hydrogels via molecular weight distribution. Biomacromolecules 2004;5:1720-7.
136. Nicholson LM, Whitley KS, Gates TS, Hinkley JA. How molecular structure affects the mechanical properties of an advanced polymer; 2000.
137. Kuo CK, Ma PX. Maintaining dimensions and mechanical properties of ionically cross-linked alginate hydrogel scaffolds in vitro. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2008;84:899-907.
138. Wang X, Jiang Z, Shi J, Zhang C, Zhang W, Wu H. Dopamine-modified alginate beads reinforced by cross-linking via titanium coordination or self-polymerization and its application in enzyme immobilization. Ind Eng Chem Res 2013;52:14828-36.
139. Wen C, Lu L, Li X. Mechanically robust gelatin–alginate IPN hydrogels by a combination of enzymatic and ionic cross-linking approaches. Macromol Mater Eng 2014;299:504-13.
140. Yin M, Xu F, Ding H, Tan F, Song F, Wang J. Incorporation of magnesium ions into photo‐cross-linked alginate hydrogel enhanced cell adhesion ability. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2015;9:1088-92.
141. Genes NG, Rowley JA, Mooney DJ, Bonassar LJ. Effect of substrate mechanics on chondrocyte adhesion to modified alginate surfaces. Arch Biochem Biophys 2004;422:161-7.
142. Hertzberg S, Moen E, Vogelsang C, Østgaard K. Mixed photo-cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol and calcium-alginate gels for cell entrapment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1995;43:10-7.
143. Samorezov JE, Morlock CM, Alsberg E. Dual ionic and photo-cross-linked alginate hydrogels for micropatterned spatial control of material properties and cell behavior. Bioconjugate Chem 2015;26:1339-47.
144. Haugh MG, Murphy CM, McKiernan RC, Altenbuchner C, O'Brien FJ. Crosslinking and mechanical properties significantly influence cell attachment, proliferation, and migration within collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffolds. Tissue Eng Part A 2011;17:1201-8.
66 Views | 80 Downloads
How to Cite
DIVYA NATARAJ, and N. REDDY. “CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS OF ALGINATE AND ITS DERIVATIVES”. International Journal of Chemistry Research, Vol. 4, no. 1, Jan. 2020, pp. 1-17, doi:10.22159/ijcr.2020v4i1.98.
Review Article