• NIMA NOROUZI Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, PO, Box 15875-4413, Tehran



Renewable energy, Power to chemicals (P2X), Energy efficiency, Economic study


Objective: The electricity-to-hydrogen technology can convert surplus renewable energy electric energy into chemical energy. Hydrogen plays an important role in transportation, power generation, and other fields. Therefore, developing electrochemical (P2X) technology for renewable energy consumption effectively solves renewable energy curtailment.

Methods: The four aspects of market scale, technical route, energy conversion efficiency, and demonstration project progress are reviewed, and the energy efficiency of the four electrochemical technologies is compared, Power consumption, marginal electricity price, equivalent output, and market share five major technical and economic indicators. To analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of P2X in China, a literature review survey was conducted, relying on recent two-decade publications from four main publishers: Scopus, Springer, Wiley, and Taylor and Francis. Keywords were selected from the first-hand references based on their impact on P2X or related topics listed in the literature databases. The keywords as Power to X, Power to chemicals, PtX, and P2X were chosen according to their actual involvement or keen interest in P2X projects.

Results: The research results based on the low-temperature electrolysis technology route show that the comprehensive energy efficiency of the electricity-to-methane and electricity-to-gasoline technologies is higher (50%); the electricity-to-gasoline technology is the most economical (marginal electricity price is 0.37 yuan/kWh), but the synthesis process requires carbon monoxide and carbon emissions, And the technical risk is high; the promotion of electricity to ammonia will have the greatest impact on the market (17.18%). Reducing coal consumption by about 22.85 million tons and the environmental protection significance of electricity-to-ammonia conversion (reducing carbon emissions by about 39.1 million tons) are two important directions for future electrochemical technology.

Conclusion: Facing the development of P2X technology in the future, the plan and economics of the high-temperature electrical and chemical technology route based on high-temperature solid oxides were preliminary discussed and prospected.


Download data is not yet available.


Zhou Q, Wang N, Ran L, Shen H, Lv Q, Wang M. Cause analysis on wind and photovoltaic energy curtailment and prospect research in. China Electr Power. 2016;49:7-12.

Feng Y, Wang S, Sha Y, Ding Q, Yuan J, Guo X. Coal power overcapacity in China: province-level estimates and policy implications. Resour Conserv Recy. 2018 Oct 1;137:89-100. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.05.019.

Schiebahn S, Grube T, Robinius M, Tietze V, Kumar B, Stolten D. Power to gas: technological overview, systems analysis and economic assessment for a case study in Germany. Int J Hydr Energy. 2015 Apr 6;40(12):4285-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.01.123.

Lehner M, Tichler R, Steinmüller H, Koppe M. Power-to-gas: technology and business models. Springer; 2014 Jul 18.

Qadrdan M, Abeysekera M, Chaudry M, Wu J, Jenkins N. Role of power-to-gas in an integrated gas and electricity system in Great Britain. Int J Hydr Energy. 2015 May 11;40(17):5763-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.03.004.

Petipas F, Brisse A, Bouallou C. Model-based behaviour of a high-temperature electrolyser system operated at various loads. J Power Sources. 2013 Oct 1;239:584-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.03.027.

Kopp M, Coleman D, Stiller C, Scheffer K, Aichinger J, Scheppat B. Energiepark Mainz: technical and economic analysis of the worldwide largest power-to-gas plant with PEM electrolysis. Int J Hydr Energy. 2017 May 11;42(19):13311-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.12.145.

Khani H, Farag HEZ. Optimal day-ahead scheduling of power-to-gas energy storage and gas load management in wholesale electricity and gas markets. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy. 2017 Oct 27;9(2):940-51. doi: 10.1109/TSTE.2017.2767064.

Frank M, Deja R, Peters R, Blum L, Stolten D. Bypassing renewable variability with a reversible solid oxide cell plant. Appl Energy. 2018 May 1;217:101-12. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.02.115.

Meng X, Gu A, Wu X, Zhou L, Zhou J, Liu B, Mao Z. Status quo of China hydrogen strategy in the field of transportation and international comparisons. Int J Hydr Energy. 2020 Dec 2.

Kendall M. Fuel cell development for New Energy Vehicles (NEVs) and clean air in China. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int. 2018 Apr 1;28(2):113-20. doi: 10.1016/j.pnsc.2018.03.001.

Zhao F, Mu Z, Hao H, Liu Z, He X, Victor Przesmitzki S, Ahmad Amer A. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle development in China: an industry chain perspective. Energy Technol. 2020 Nov;8(11). doi: 10.1002/ente.202000179, PMID 2000179.

Scopus Database. Available from: [Last accessed on 10 Apr 2021]

Wiley Database. Available from: [Last accessed on 10 Apr 2021]

Springer database. Available from: [Last accessed on 10 Apr 2021]

Taylor and Francis database. Available from: [Last accessed on 10 Apr 2021]

Liu F, Zhao F, Liu Z, Hao H. The impact of fuel cell vehicle deployment on road transport greenhouse gas emissions: the China case. Int J Hydr Energy. 2018 Dec 13;43(50):22604-21. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.10.088.

Feng X. Methanol ammonia and new energy economy. Chemical Industry Publisher; 2010. p. 55.

Rashid MM, Al Mesfer MK, Naseem H, Danish M. Hydrogen production by water electrolysis: a review of alkaline water electrolysis, PEM water electrolysis and high-temperature water electrolysis. Int J Eng Adv Technol. 2015 Feb;4(3):2249.

Valera Medina A, Xiao H, Owen Jones M, David WIF, Bowen PJ. Ammonia for power. Prog Energy Combust Sci. 2018 Nov 1;69:63-102. doi: 10.1016/j.pecs.2018.07.001.

Tovazhnyanskyy L, Klemes JJ, Kapustenko P, Arsenyeva O, Perevertaylenko O, Arsenyev P. Optimal design of welded plate heat exchanger for ammonia synthesis column: an experimental study with mathematical optimization. Energies. 2020 Jan;13(11):2847. doi: 10.3390/en13112847.

Banares Alcantara R, Dericks III G, Fiaschetti M, Grunewald P, Lopez JM, Tsang E, Yang A, Ye L, Zhao S. Analysis of islanded ammonia-based energy storage systems. University of Oxford; 2015 Sep.

Bicer Y, Khalid F. Life cycle environmental impact comparison of solid oxide fuel cells fueled by natural gas, hydrogen, ammonia and methanol for combined heat and power generation. Int J Hydr Energy. 2020 Jan 29;45(5):3670-85. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.11.122.

Aziz M, Oda T, Morihara A, Kashiwagi T. Combined nitrogen production, ammonia synthesis, and power generation for efficient hydrogen storage. Energy Procedia. 2017 Dec 1;143:674-9. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.745.

Bongartz D, Dore L, Eichler K, Grube T, Heuser B, Hombach LE, Robinius M, Pischinger S, Stolten D, Walther G, Mitsos A. Comparison of light-duty transportation fuels produced from renewable hydrogen and green carbon dioxide. Appl Energy. 2018 Dec 1;231:757-67. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.106.

Bicer Y, Dincer I. Life cycle evaluation of hydrogen and other potential fuels for aircrafts. Int J Hydr Energy. 2017 Apr 20;42(16):10722-38. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.12.119.

Adnan MA, Kibria MG. Comparative techno-economic and life-cycle assessment of power-to-methanol synthesis pathways. Appl Energy. 2020 Nov 15;278. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115614, PMID 115614.

Eggemann L, Escobar N, Peters R, Burauel P, Stolten D. Life cycle assessment of a small-scale methanol production system: A power-to-fuel strategy for biogas plants. J Cleaner Prod. 2020 Oct 20;271. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122476, PMID 122476.

Huang H, Samsun RC, Peters R, Stolten D. Greener production of dimethyl carbonate by the power-to-fuel concept: a comparative techno-economic analysis. Green Chem. 2021;23(4):1734-47. doi: 10.1039/D0GC03865B.

Bargiacchi E, Antonelli M, Desideri U. A comparative assessment of power-to-fuel production pathways. Energy. 2019 Sep 15;183:1253-65. doi: 10.1016/

Bellotti D, Sorce A, Rivarolo M, Magistri L. Techno-economic analysis for the integration of a power to fuel system with a CCS coal power plant. J CO2 Util. 2019 Oct 1;33:262-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jcou.2019.05.019.

Cheng ZH. Research progress of methanation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Chem Ind Eng Prog. 2007;9.

Peters R, Baltruweit M, Grube T, Samsun RC, Stolten D. A techno economic analysis of the power to gas route. J CO2 Util. 2019 Dec 1;34:616-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jcou.2019.07.009.

Decker M, Schorn F, Samsun RC, Peters R, Stolten D. Off-grid power-to-fuel systems for a market launch scenario– A techno-economic assessment. Appl Energy. 2019 Sep 15;250:1099-109. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.05.085.

Energy DY. Production, conversion, storage, conservation, and coupling. Springer Science+Business Media; 2012 Jan 26.

Salami HA. A comparative life cycle assessment of energy use in major agro-processing industries in Nigeria. J Energy Res Rev. 2019 Sep 21:1. doi: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430102.

Bromberg L, Cheng WK. Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US: options for sustainable and/or energy-secure transportation. Cambridge, MA: Sloan Automotive Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 2010 Nov 28.

Pearson RJ, Turner JW, Eisaman MD, Littau KA. Extending the supply of alcohol fuels for energy security and carbon reduction [SAE technical paper]. 2009 Nov 2.

Ohtani J, Sakamoto T, Wada M, Faizal HM, Yokomori T, Ueda T. Experimental study on a methanol auto-thermal reforming for compact reformer. Mech Eng J. 2016;3(2):15-00069. doi: 10.1299/mej.15-00069.

Yeh P, Chang CH, Shih N, Yeh N. Durability and efficiency tests for direct methanol fuel cell’s long-term performance assessment. Energy. 2016 Jul 15;107:716-24. doi: 10.1016/

Zhang Y, Sun Q, Deng J, Wu D, Chen S. A high activity Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for methanol synthesis: preparation and catalytic properties. Appl Cat A. 1997 Sep 25;158(1-2):105-20. doi: 10.1016/S0926-860X(96)00362-6.

Beigzadeh M, Pourfayaz F, Ghazvini M, Ahmadi MH. Energy and exergy analyses of solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid systems fed by different renewable biofuels: A comparative study. J Cleaner Prod. 2021;280. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124383, PMID 124383.

Herz G, Rix C, Jacobasch E, Muller N, Reichelt E, Jahn M, Michaelis A. Economic assessment of power-to-liquid processes– influence of electrolysis technology and operating conditions. Appl Energy. 2021 Jun 15;292. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.116655, PMID 116655.

Schemme S, Breuer JL, Köller M, Meschede S, Walman F, Samsun RC, Peters R, Stolten D. H2-based synthetic fuels: A techno-economic comparison of alcohol, ether and hydrocarbon production. Int J Hydr Energy. 2020 Feb 14;45(8):5395-414. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.05.028.

Parigi D, Giglio E, Soto A, Santarelli M. Power-to-fuels through carbon dioxide Re-Utilization and high-temperature electrolysis: A technical and economical comparison between synthetic methanol and methane. J Cleaner Prod. 2019 Jul 20;226:679-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.04.087.

Zhang Y, Yuan Z, Margni M, Bulle C, Hua H, Jiang S, Liu X. Intensive carbon dioxide emission of coal chemical industry in China. Appl Energy. 2019 Feb 15;236:540-50. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.12.022.

Wang X, Wang W, Qiao M, Wu G, Chen W, Yuan T, Xu Q, Chen M, Zhang Y, Wang X, Wang J, Ge J, Hong X, Li Y, Wu Y, Li Y. Atomically dispersed Au1 catalyst towards an efficient electrochemical synthesis of ammonia. Sci Bull. 2018 Oct 15;63(19):1246-53. doi: 10.1016/j.scib.2018.07.005.

Murakami T, Nishikiori T, Nohira T, Ito Y. Investigation of anodic reaction of electrolytic ammonia synthesis in molten salts under atmospheric pressure. J Electrochem Soc. 2005 Mar 25;152(5):D75. doi: 10.1149/1.1874752.

Xu G, Liu R, Wang J. Electrochemical synthesis of ammonia using a cell with a nafion membrane and SmFe 0.7 Cu 0.3− x Ni x O 3 (x= 0− 0.3) cathode at atmospheric pressure and lower temperature. Sci China S B: Chemistry. 2009 Aug 1;52:1171-5.

Jensen SH, Graves C, Mogensen M, Wendel C, Braun R, Hughes G, Gao Z, Barnett SA. Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4. Energy Environ Sci. 2015 Jul 29;8(8):2471-9. doi: 10.1039/C5EE01485A.

Jensen SH, Larsen PH, Mogensen M. Hydrogen and synthetic fuel production from renewable energy sources. Int J Hydr Energy. 2007 Oct 1;32(15):3253-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2007.04.042.

Hartvigsen J, Elangovan S, Frost L, Nickens A, Stoots CM, O’Brien JE, Herring JS. Carbon dioxide recycling by high-temperature co-electrolysis and hydrocarbon synthesis. ECS Trans. 2008 May 2;12(1):625-37. doi: 10.1149/1.2921588.

Kolodziejczyk B. Unsettled issues concerning the use of green ammonia fuel in ground vehicles [SAE technical]. 2021 Feb 15.

Gutierrez Martin F, Rodriguez Anton LM. Power-to-SNG technologies by hydrogenation of CO2 and biomass resources: a comparative chemical engineering process analysis. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2019 May 17;44(25):12544-53. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.09.168.

Wang L, Perez Fortes M, Madi H, Diethelm S, Marechal Fherle JV, Marechal F. Optimal design of solid-oxide electrolyzer based power-to-methane systems: A comprehensive comparison between steam electrolysis and co-electrolysis. Applied Energy. 2018 Feb 1;211:1060-79. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.11.050.



How to Cite

NOROUZI, N. “INVESTIGATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY USE IN THE P2X TECHNOLOGY”. International Journal of Chemistry Research, vol. 5, no. 4, Oct. 2021, pp. 19-30, doi:10.22159/ijcr.2021v5i4.175.



Research Article